At the end of the 1990s, the term “globalization” was a part of a sociological revolution. Today, it is used not only by scientists, but also by politicians and even in media research. This word contains a paradigm, and deals with an understanding of the processes which are happening in the world and making epochal changes. Globalization is actually a short set of complex processes, the essence of which is “compressing” the world in time and space and putting every little thing in boundaries of the formal set of rules. Globalization is a historical process of turning the world into a single system with united characteristics and features. Historically, this system gives rise to such globalization factors as:
- electronic means of communication that can compress time and space, shortening the distance between people;
- technological changes allow to spread production and theoretical information throughout the world;
- formation of global ideologies, such as environmental or human rights movements.
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Trends of Globalization
In the late 1990s, the term “globalization” entered scientific circulation and research. Globalization is understood as the process of unification of the economies of the world, the creation of unified, legal, economic and informational space. The characteristic features of globalization are strengthening and emphasizing the role of multinational companies – commercial enterprises that are operating in two or more countries and whose operations contain certain foreign components. Currently, according to the research, there are more than 7 thousand of such workspaces that include more than 700 thousand of smaller companies that are under influence of bigger ones. The main home countries for such companies are the US, the UK, and Japan.
Currently, 80% of the newest technologies are made by such workspaces, whose income, in some cases, exceeds the gross national income of some countries. It is important to mention that in the list of the world’s 100 largest economic structures they occupy the 51-th position. It should be noted that the majority of them are involved into advancing innovative technologies, network computers and new computer programs, public opinion and mass consciousness technologies, and many others. The developers and owners of such technologies control financial markets and determine the flow of the world economy.
Creating a Computer Network
The Internet is a global computer network, established in the US as the source of the Ministry of Defense in 1969. It began to share information and became a global info source in the early 1990s. It gave us a chance to fulfil such research functions:
- immediately get in touch with anyone at any point of the globe, conduct online conferences, transform meetings in real time in a multimedia mode;
- receive access to the unlimited amount of information;
- communicate with any reference groups and representatives of various elites, hence eliminating the factor of status distinctions;
- use it as a means of recreation and entertainment;
- use it as a teaching tool;
- advertise goods and services;
- use it as a platform for doing business;
- provide mobile and comfortable existence;
- significantly increase the efficiency of interaction between citizens and governments;
- organize media in real time.
The existence and advance of the Internet is the indicator of involvement of countries in the global space. It gives a possibility to make research on any topic you would like to study.
The Growth of Megacities
Megacities are large cities with developed infrastructure. Numbering several million inhabitants, they can be considered new forms of urbanization. Megacities are centers of economy, technology, politics and culture, as well as mediate entries into the global space. Megalopolis often becomes a “state within a state” and even determines the destiny of the country. Unfortunately, the growth of mega-cities leads to negative consequences, such as overcrowding, sharp stratification of society (that is division of people into the very rich and the very poor), loss of national identity, increase of crime, reduction of social control.
Currently, the largest metropolitan areas are Mexico, New York, Greater Tokyo-Yokohama (merging in a single city), Greater London (metropolitan area). The number of inhabitants in each of them is more than or nearly 20 million people.